Although the best-known phrase of Kali Linux is "the quiet you are the more you are able to hear", as a citizen of the planet earth, I apologize and allow myself to break this rule. As a simple developer, i love to listen music while I work and by default in Kali Linux 2016.2 the sound doesn't work.
Follow these steps to put the Audio services in order to listen music while you work !
1. Stop any sound service
The killall command is used to kill all processes (running instances of programs) associated with programs whose names are provided to it as arguments. In this case, you need to stop any
pulseaudio service (in case that there's running):
sudo killall pulseaudio
Is essential to stop any running pulseaudio service as this would prevent any problem with the uninstallation later.
2. Remove pulseaudio
PulseAudio is a sound system for POSIX OSes, meaning that it is a proxy for your sound applications. It allows you to do advanced operations on your sound data as it passes between your application and your hardware. PulseAudio is designed for Linux systems.
You can remove it using the following command:
sudo apt-get purge pulseaudio pulseaudio-utils gstreamer0.10-pulseaudio paman pavumeter pavucontrol
Purge is identical to
apt-get remove except that packages are removed and purged. Purge meaning that any configuration files are deleted too.
3. Install alsa-base
alsa-base is a package that contains various configuration files for the alsa drivers.for alsa to work on a system with a given sound card, there must be an alsa driver for that card in the kernel. linux 2.6 as shipped in linux-image packages contains alsa drivers for all supported sound cards in the form of loadable modules.
Install it using the following command:
sudo apt-get install alsa-base alsa-tools alsa-tools-gui alsa-utils alsa-oss alsamixergui libalsaplayer0
With the execution of the command, the download of the package should start. If it fails, then you need as first execute
sudo apt-get update. Then execute the command again and it should work properly.
4. Install kmix
KMix is an application to allow you to change the volume of your sound card. Though small, it is full-featured, and it supports several platforms and sound drivers.
You can install it with the following command:
apt-get install kmix
At this point you should restart the machine to prevent any error in the next step. Save this article in the Bookmark bar of your browser and come back once the computer restarts.
5. Install pulseaudio
Once the computer starts again, open a new terminal and proceed to install pulseaudio with the following command:
apt-get install pulseaudio
6. Install gnome-core
The Gnome-core packages contains essential components for desktop environments, install it using the following command:
apt-get install gnome-core
Restart once again your computer and the sound should now work. If you think that these steps are unnecessary, remember that Kali is a Linux distribution specifically geared towards professional penetration testers and security specialists, therefore are components that doesn't work because they aren't essential for the distribution.
Have fun !