Creating URL slugs properly in Javascript (including transliteration for UTF-8)

Creating URL slugs properly in Javascript (including transliteration for UTF-8)

The point to use a slug (semantic URL) besides of improve the SEO of your articles is to prevent that the user, at the creation of for example an article, it uses special characters that aren't allowed in a URL, appropiate the usage etc. What target usage means, is context dependent.

You'll want to allow the user to change the slug of the URL if he wants in the formular for different reasons (literal conversions wouldn't be useful for our SEO i.e: C# would be c, and the c language is different to C#, therefore the user may want to change c to c-sharp in the URL).

In this article, you'll learn how to slugify a string in Javascript properly, including (or not) support (conversion) for cyrilic and special latin characters.

Slugify with Javascript

The following function exposes a simple way to convert text into a valid slug:

function slugify(text)
    return text.toLowerCase().replace(/ /g,'-').replace(/[^\w-]+/g,'');

However, this function will not be able to convert special characters to its equivalents, if you want to convert them, please keep reading.

Support for all UTF-8 characters

If you are not facing this problem, you may be probably asking to yourself why the previous function wouldn't work with all the strings? the answer is pretty simple, those unrecognized characters (most of them cyrilics) that aren't supported on a URL will be now shown in the slug.

To understand this behaviour, i'll expose you the following example:

slugify("Cómo hablar en sílabas");
// Outputs: cmo-hablar-en-slabas

// However, it would be better if the URL is instead
// "como-hablar-en-silabas"

What would be better than a slugify function that converts those unrecognized characters into it's normal encoding character to create a "normal" URL ? that's the point of the following function.

The following snippet written by Sean Murphy, will provide support for characters from Latin, Greek, Ukrainian, Polish etc into it's "equivalent" in normal characters.  This snippet was published in the original Gist that you can see in Github here.

Note: in case you don't want to use such a big function for that, you can check out the one line solution providen at the end of the article which supports UTF-8 too (at less the most known characters).

Feel free to remove of the char_map object those characters that probably in your country no one will use and make the code shorter.

 * Create a web friendly URL slug from a string.
 * Requires XRegExp ( with unicode add-ons for UTF-8 support.
 * Although supported, transliteration is discouraged because
 *     1) most web browsers support UTF-8 characters in URLs
 *     2) transliteration causes a loss of information
 * @author Sean Murphy <>
 * @copyright Copyright 2012 Sean Murphy. All rights reserved.
 * @license
 * @param string s
 * @param object opt
 * @return string
function url_slug(s, opt) {
	s = String(s);
	opt = Object(opt);
	var defaults = {
		'delimiter': '-',
		'limit': undefined,
		'lowercase': true,
		'replacements': {},
		'transliterate': (typeof(XRegExp) === 'undefined') ? true : false
	// Merge options
	for (var k in defaults) {
		if (!opt.hasOwnProperty(k)) {
			opt[k] = defaults[k];
	var char_map = {
		// Latin
		'À': 'A', 'Á': 'A', 'Â': 'A', 'Ã': 'A', 'Ä': 'A', 'Å': 'A', 'Æ': 'AE', 'Ç': 'C', 
		'È': 'E', 'É': 'E', 'Ê': 'E', 'Ë': 'E', 'Ì': 'I', 'Í': 'I', 'Î': 'I', 'Ï': 'I', 
		'Ð': 'D', 'Ñ': 'N', 'Ò': 'O', 'Ó': 'O', 'Ô': 'O', 'Õ': 'O', 'Ö': 'O', 'Ő': 'O', 
		'Ø': 'O', 'Ù': 'U', 'Ú': 'U', 'Û': 'U', 'Ü': 'U', 'Ű': 'U', 'Ý': 'Y', 'Þ': 'TH', 
		'ß': 'ss', 
		'à': 'a', 'á': 'a', 'â': 'a', 'ã': 'a', 'ä': 'a', 'å': 'a', 'æ': 'ae', 'ç': 'c', 
		'è': 'e', 'é': 'e', 'ê': 'e', 'ë': 'e', 'ì': 'i', 'í': 'i', 'î': 'i', 'ï': 'i', 
		'ð': 'd', 'ñ': 'n', 'ò': 'o', 'ó': 'o', 'ô': 'o', 'õ': 'o', 'ö': 'o', 'ő': 'o', 
		'ø': 'o', 'ù': 'u', 'ú': 'u', 'û': 'u', 'ü': 'u', 'ű': 'u', 'ý': 'y', 'þ': 'th', 
		'ÿ': 'y',

		// Latin symbols
		'©': '(c)',

		// Greek
		'Α': 'A', 'Β': 'B', 'Γ': 'G', 'Δ': 'D', 'Ε': 'E', 'Ζ': 'Z', 'Η': 'H', 'Θ': '8',
		'Ι': 'I', 'Κ': 'K', 'Λ': 'L', 'Μ': 'M', 'Ν': 'N', 'Ξ': '3', 'Ο': 'O', 'Π': 'P',
		'Ρ': 'R', 'Σ': 'S', 'Τ': 'T', 'Υ': 'Y', 'Φ': 'F', 'Χ': 'X', 'Ψ': 'PS', 'Ω': 'W',
		'Ά': 'A', 'Έ': 'E', 'Ί': 'I', 'Ό': 'O', 'Ύ': 'Y', 'Ή': 'H', 'Ώ': 'W', 'Ϊ': 'I',
		'Ϋ': 'Y',
		'α': 'a', 'β': 'b', 'γ': 'g', 'δ': 'd', 'ε': 'e', 'ζ': 'z', 'η': 'h', 'θ': '8',
		'ι': 'i', 'κ': 'k', 'λ': 'l', 'μ': 'm', 'ν': 'n', 'ξ': '3', 'ο': 'o', 'π': 'p',
		'ρ': 'r', 'σ': 's', 'τ': 't', 'υ': 'y', 'φ': 'f', 'χ': 'x', 'ψ': 'ps', 'ω': 'w',
		'ά': 'a', 'έ': 'e', 'ί': 'i', 'ό': 'o', 'ύ': 'y', 'ή': 'h', 'ώ': 'w', 'ς': 's',
		'ϊ': 'i', 'ΰ': 'y', 'ϋ': 'y', 'ΐ': 'i',

		// Turkish
		'Ş': 'S', 'İ': 'I', 'Ç': 'C', 'Ü': 'U', 'Ö': 'O', 'Ğ': 'G',
		'ş': 's', 'ı': 'i', 'ç': 'c', 'ü': 'u', 'ö': 'o', 'ğ': 'g', 

		// Russian
		'А': 'A', 'Б': 'B', 'В': 'V', 'Г': 'G', 'Д': 'D', 'Е': 'E', 'Ё': 'Yo', 'Ж': 'Zh',
		'З': 'Z', 'И': 'I', 'Й': 'J', 'К': 'K', 'Л': 'L', 'М': 'M', 'Н': 'N', 'О': 'O',
		'П': 'P', 'Р': 'R', 'С': 'S', 'Т': 'T', 'У': 'U', 'Ф': 'F', 'Х': 'H', 'Ц': 'C',
		'Ч': 'Ch', 'Ш': 'Sh', 'Щ': 'Sh', 'Ъ': '', 'Ы': 'Y', 'Ь': '', 'Э': 'E', 'Ю': 'Yu',
		'Я': 'Ya',
		'а': 'a', 'б': 'b', 'в': 'v', 'г': 'g', 'д': 'd', 'е': 'e', 'ё': 'yo', 'ж': 'zh',
		'з': 'z', 'и': 'i', 'й': 'j', 'к': 'k', 'л': 'l', 'м': 'm', 'н': 'n', 'о': 'o',
		'п': 'p', 'р': 'r', 'с': 's', 'т': 't', 'у': 'u', 'ф': 'f', 'х': 'h', 'ц': 'c',
		'ч': 'ch', 'ш': 'sh', 'щ': 'sh', 'ъ': '', 'ы': 'y', 'ь': '', 'э': 'e', 'ю': 'yu',
		'я': 'ya',

		// Ukrainian
		'Є': 'Ye', 'І': 'I', 'Ї': 'Yi', 'Ґ': 'G',
		'є': 'ye', 'і': 'i', 'ї': 'yi', 'ґ': 'g',

		// Czech
		'Č': 'C', 'Ď': 'D', 'Ě': 'E', 'Ň': 'N', 'Ř': 'R', 'Š': 'S', 'Ť': 'T', 'Ů': 'U', 
		'Ž': 'Z', 
		'č': 'c', 'ď': 'd', 'ě': 'e', 'ň': 'n', 'ř': 'r', 'š': 's', 'ť': 't', 'ů': 'u',
		'ž': 'z', 

		// Polish
		'Ą': 'A', 'Ć': 'C', 'Ę': 'e', 'Ł': 'L', 'Ń': 'N', 'Ó': 'o', 'Ś': 'S', 'Ź': 'Z', 
		'Ż': 'Z', 
		'ą': 'a', 'ć': 'c', 'ę': 'e', 'ł': 'l', 'ń': 'n', 'ó': 'o', 'ś': 's', 'ź': 'z',
		'ż': 'z',

		// Latvian
		'Ā': 'A', 'Č': 'C', 'Ē': 'E', 'Ģ': 'G', 'Ī': 'i', 'Ķ': 'k', 'Ļ': 'L', 'Ņ': 'N', 
		'Š': 'S', 'Ū': 'u', 'Ž': 'Z', 
		'ā': 'a', 'č': 'c', 'ē': 'e', 'ģ': 'g', 'ī': 'i', 'ķ': 'k', 'ļ': 'l', 'ņ': 'n',
		'š': 's', 'ū': 'u', 'ž': 'z'
	// Make custom replacements
	for (var k in opt.replacements) {
		s = s.replace(RegExp(k, 'g'), opt.replacements[k]);
	// Transliterate characters to ASCII
	if (opt.transliterate) {
		for (var k in char_map) {
			s = s.replace(RegExp(k, 'g'), char_map[k]);
	// Replace non-alphanumeric characters with our delimiter
	var alnum = (typeof(XRegExp) === 'undefined') ? RegExp('[^a-z0-9]+', 'ig') : XRegExp('[^\\p{L}\\p{N}]+', 'ig');
	s = s.replace(alnum, opt.delimiter);
	// Remove duplicate delimiters
	s = s.replace(RegExp('[' + opt.delimiter + ']{2,}', 'g'), opt.delimiter);
	// Truncate slug to max. characters
	s = s.substring(0, opt.limit);
	// Remove delimiter from ends
	s = s.replace(RegExp('(^' + opt.delimiter + '|' + opt.delimiter + '$)', 'g'), '');
	return opt.lowercase ? s.toLowerCase() : s;

Shorter function

If you don't want to use the previous mentioned function because you're a code "artisan" or simply you use a couple of characters, then you can use the following function instead:

function slugify(str) {
    str = str.replace(/^\s+|\s+$/g, ''); // trim
    str = str.toLowerCase();

    // remove accents, swap ñ for n, etc
    var from = "ãàáäâẽèéëêìíïîõòóöôùúüûñç·/_,:;";
    var to   = "aaaaaeeeeeiiiiooooouuuunc------";
    for (var i=0, l=from.length ; i<l ; i++) {
         str = str.replace(new RegExp(from.charAt(i), 'g'), to.charAt(i));

    str = str.replace(/[^a-z0-9 -]/g, '') // remove invalid chars
    .replace(/\s+/g, '-') // collapse whitespace and replace by -
    .replace(/-+/g, '-'); // collapse dashes

    return str;

As you can see it supports the conversion (Á to A, ü to u etc) of complex characters that will be included in a URL and you don't need to include a large function for it.

Have fun !

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